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Analysis of prebiotics with IC-PAD: Improving AOAC 2001.02

Analysis of prebiotics with IC-PAD: Improving AOAC 2001.02

Our diet is critical for our health. In the past several years, interest has increased in food additives and dietary supplements such as prebiotics like β-galactooligosaccharides (GOSs). The determination of total GOS contents in food and supplements is essential to fulfill strict food labeling and safety requirements. The most widely used method for total GOS determination is based on enzymatic hydrolysis to break down the complex molecules into simple carbohydrates prior to their chromatographic analysis. This article outlines the advantage of using an improvement to AOAC Method 2001.02 using ion chromatography with amperometric detection (IC-PAD) and full sample automation after enzymatic hydrolysis.

What are GOSs?

GOSs are chains of galactose units with an optional glucose end. They are often naturally present in small amounts in various foods and beverages.

Initially discovered as major constituents of human breast milk (present up to 12 g/L), GOSs are added as a prebiotic supplement to infant formulas. They show bifidogenic effects, meaning they support growth and well-being of non-pathogenic gut bacteria.

GOS supplements are available either raw, or as concentrated powders or syrups, and are subsequently used by food manufacturers to enrich consumer products or sold as supplements.

GOS labeling requirements

The ongoing growth of global prebiotic and GOS markets is a result of increasing consumer awareness regarding healthy eating. Similarly, increased demand regarding food quality has led to stricter, more comprehensive rules for food labeling and safety (e.g., EU 1169/2011 and  EU 2015/2283). The determination of total GOS contents in food, supplements, or raw products is thus essential to fulfill such requirements.

Studies about GOS health effects recommend maximum doses under 30 g per day, though this is much stricter for infant formulas. Otherwise, there are no other limits regarding GOS content in food or as nutritional supplements.

AOAC 2001.02

The most widely used method to measure total GOSs in food products is the standard method AOAC 2001.02. This method is based on the extraction of GOS from a sample followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of the oligosaccharides into monosaccharides and their subsequent analyses with high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection.

Figure 1. Schematic for determination of total GOS contents using ion chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (IC-PAD) according to AOAC 2001.02, and an optimized method from Metrohm (in green). Chromatography for anions in AOAC is referred as HPAEC (high performance anion exchange chromatography) but is simplified here to the generic term of IC.

In AOAC, chromatography for anions is referred to as HPAEC (high performance anion exchange chromatography) but here we will simplify this to the generic term of IC.

The key to AOAC 2001.02 is the comparison of a control solution with one which has been treated and hydrolyzed with an enzyme (β-galactosidase). The enzyme catalyzes the splitting of glycosidic bonds and hydrolyzes GOSs and lactose into glucose and galactose. The concentration differences of free galactose and lactose determined in these two solutions is used to calculate the total GOSs (Figure 1).

Improvements to the AOAC Method

The sample preparation for AOAC 2001.02 is rather complex: one shortcoming is the incubation of the reference solution with the deactivated enzyme (which is rather expensive) to determine the initial carbohydrate concentrations (Figure 1) rather than using the pure extract. Another critical point is the sample dilution procedure, which is supposed to be done in acetonitrile, while standards are based on ultrapure water.

Here, the focus was to simplify the entire procedure to increase the ease of use and the overall efficiency of the method.

The improved method for total GOS content analysis uses the extract for measuring of the initial glucose, galactose, and lactose concentrations (Figure 1 Assay 1). However, the deactivated enzyme was not used, and instead comparisons were made to see if its presence had any effect on the results. This step was eliminated after proving results equivalent to AOAC 2001.02 Assay 1 (with the deactivated enzyme), but chemical expenses and additional manual work are reduced. The total GOS content is therefore calculated from the analyte concentrations in Assay 1 (without any enzyme) and Assay 2 (extract with the active enzyme) (Figure 2).

Figure 2. Overlaid chromatograms of Bimuno (prebiotic supplement), untreated (black) and treated with enzyme (orange).

Want to know more details about the application? Download our free Application Note AN-P-087 about total GOS analysis in foods with ion chromatography!

Aside from the enzyme usage, the official AOAC method for analysis of total GOSs suggests that standards be prepared in ultrapure water (UPW) while samples are to be diluted with 20% acetonitrile. A control experiment was performed to compare results between:

  • Dilutions in UPW evaluated with UPW calibration (“UPW option”)
  • Dilutions in acetonitrile evaluated with UPW calibration (AOAC 2001.02)
  • Dilutions in acetonitrile evaluated with acetonitrile calibration (“ACN option”)

Reproducibility of total GOS contents was compared among the three options, with the UPW and AOAC preparation options exhibiting similar results. The ACN option resulted in lower total GOS contents than the others. Additionally, the acetonitrile did not seem to lend a stabilizing effect to the samples. This supports the improvement of the AOAC method by performing sample dilutions with UPW instead of acetonitrile, saving unnecessary reagents and limiting the chemical imprint of the analysis.


Overall, the satisfying variability, target and spike recoveries (Application Note AN-P-087), together with the interference tests proved the modified method as valuable and robust. With limits of detection (LODs) of 0.1 mg/L (galactose) and 0.2 mg/L (glucose, lactose) in solution, even low total GOS contents can be determined with high precision.


As a multicomponent method, ion chromatography with amperometric detection is a very selective, sensitive, and robust analysis method for carbohydrates without any additional derivatization steps. In combination with enzymatic treatment, even more complex carbohydrates can be quantified.

This research presents an update to the standard AOAC method for total GOS determination in foodstuffs. With the same principle (enzymatic hydrolysis of complex GOS molecules followed by chromatographic analysis of simple carbohydrates), analytical method efficiency was improved in favor of laboratory time and running costs. Additional automation steps (e.g., Metrohm Inline Dilution and automatic calibrations) can further improve the method efficiency.

Want more information about the simplified method for total GOSs via IC-PAD? More details about the improvement of AOAC method 2001.02 by reducing manual laboratory work and eliminating expensive reagents can be found in our article published in The Column from LC/GC (2021): Improving on AOAC 2001.02: GOS Determination in Foods Using HPAEC–PAD.

Read our article in LC/GC The Column (2021)

Improving on AOAC 2001.02: GOS Determination in Foods Using HPAEC–PAD

Post written by Dr. Alyson Lanciki, Scientific Editor at Metrohm International Headquarters, Herisau, Switzerland.

Multiparameter analysis in fertilizers by thermometric titration

Multiparameter analysis in fertilizers by thermometric titration

Agriculture without fertilizers is no longer possible – without them, today’s estimated global population of 7.9 billion people could not be supported. Fertilizers provide plants with much needed nutrients for optimal growth. The ideal fertilizer depends not only on the crop, but the soil as well. To achieve the best results, knowledge of the fertilizer composition is essential.

To learn more about the origins of industrial fertilizers, read about the Haber-Bosch process in our series about the History of Chemistry.

Different fertilizers for different needs

Fertilizers can be classified in various ways, one of which being their origin. Fertilizers derived from plants and/or animals, such as dung or manure, are usually called «organic fertilizers», while fertilizers obtained from mineral salts or ores are called «inorganic fertilizers».

 The most often used classification of inorganic fertilizers is based on their nutrient composition. Classification by nutrient composition allows farmers to select the optimal fertilizer for their soil and crops. Single nutrient or straight fertilizers deliver only one nutrient. Examples are ammonium nitrate or single superphosphate. More common are multi-nutrient fertilizers consisting of two or more nutrients. Examples here include monoammonium phosphate or NPK (nitrogen-phosphate-potassium) fertilizers.

Nutrients for plants

The macronutrients nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium are the main nutrients required by the plant for its growth. Other secondary nutrients such as sulfur and calcium, or micronutrients like boron are also essential but required in smaller quantities.

Why analyze the fertilizer composition?

Selecting the ideal fertilizer composition is essential for proper plant growth. Crops will suffer from a deficiency in nutrients, however adding an abundance of them can be detrimental, resulting in fertilizer burn for example.

Furthermore, releasing too much fertilizers at once can lead to undesirable environmental pollution. Fertilizer producers are therefore required to specify the amount of nutrients within their products, and various norms from ISO, EN, and AOAC exist for the standardized determination of these nutrients.

Thermometric titration for fertilizer analysis

Traditionally the main nutrients in fertilizers are determined by analytical methods such as gravimetry, photometry, or ICP-OES. These methods require either time-consuming sample preparation or the use of expensive analysis equipment. Thermometric titration provides an inexpensive alternative solution for the analysis of potassium, phosphorus, sulfur, ammoniacal nitrogen, and urea without any time-consuming steps.

Using thermometric titration to analyze fertilizer composition has several benefits: 

  • Analysis of multiple parameters with one device
  • Automation possibility for analyzing multiple samples a day
  • Rapid results for each parameter with titration times under 5 minutes

Want to learn more about the analysis of fertilizers with thermometric titration? Download our free White Paper on this topic: Multiparameter analysis in fertilizers – Fast and easy via thermometric titration. 

What is thermometric titration?

Thermometric titration (TET) is based on the principle of enthalpy change. Each chemical reaction is associated with a change in enthalpy that in turn causes a temperature change. This temperature change during a titration can be measured with a highly sensitive thermistor in order to determine the endpoint of the titration.

If you would like to read more about the basic principles of thermometric titration, click below for our previous  blog post «Thermometric titration – the missing piece of the puzzle».

Metrohm’s maintenance-free Thermoprobe used for fast and reliable indication of thermometric titration endpoints.

How are the analyses performed?

In this section I will explain how the analyses for various macronutrients in fertilizers are done using thermometric titration.

Thermometric titration system consisting of a 859 Titrotherm fully equipped with a Thermoprobe, titration stand and buret, and the tiamo software for the multiparameter analysis of fertilizers.

Phosphorus is an essential macronutrient for photosynthesis and optimal crop growth, as it provides the energy to extract other nutrients from the soil. Historically, total phosphorus content is determined by gravimetric analysis. Alternatively, spectrophotometric analysis or ICP-OES may be used for the determination. These methods all require time-consuming sample preparation steps or regular calibrations.

The thermometric titration of phosphorus is based on the gravimetric determination, but without long drying times to achieve constant weight. An appropriate aliquot of sample is added to the titration vessel and 5 mL of pH 10 buffer (ammonium chloride / ammonia) as well as 5 mL of an oxalate solution (to precipitate any interfering calcium) are added. The solution is then made up to 30 mL with deionized water and titrated with a magnesium nitrate titrant until after the exothermic endpoint.

Figure 1. Exothermic titration curve of the phosphate determination in an NPK fertilizer (blue = titration curve, pink = second derivative showing the endpoint).

For more detailed information about thermometric titration of phosphorus, download one of the following free application documents:

Ammoniacal nitrogen and urea

Nitrogen is an essential macronutrient as it is a component of amino acids (protein building blocks) and nucleic acid (building blocks of DNA). In inorganic fertilizers, nitrogen is usually present as ammonium, nitrate, or urea. Ammonia is usually determined after alkaline distillation by acid-base back-titration, while other nitrogen species are usually first converted to ammonia via digestion prior to analysis.

With thermometric titration, a different approach is used. Ammonium ions as well as urea react exothermically with hypochlorite in a redox reaction. This reaction is further catalyzed in the presence of bromide ions in a slightly alkaline solution. 

Figure 2. Exothermic titration curve of ammoniacal nitrogen and urea in an NPK fertilizer (blue = titration curve, pink = second derivative showing the endpoint). The first endpoint (left) corresponds to ammonia and the second one (right) to urea.

To analyze ammoniacal nitrogen and urea, an appropriate aliquot of sample is added to the titration vessel and then 10 mL of a bromide/bicarbonate solution is added. The solution is then made up to 50 mL with deionized water and titrated with hypochlorite until after the exothermic endpoint.

For more detailed information about thermometric titration of ammonium and urea, check out the following free application notes:


Potassium is an essential macronutrient for crops, needed for regulating their water and making them more resistant to droughts. Historically, potassium content is determined by gravimetric analysis. More recently, ICP-OES is used for this determination, but the instrumentation is very expensive.

The thermometric titration of potassium is based on the precipitation of potassium with sodium tetraphenyl borate (STPB). It is a quick titration and for this reason has already been integrated in various Chinese standards on fertilizers (HG/T 2321 for potassium dihydrogen phosphate, GB/T 20784 for potassium nitrate, and GB/T 37918 for potassium chloride).

An appropriate aliquot of sample is added to the titration vessel. The solution is then made up to 30 mL with deionized water and titrated with STPB until after the exothermic endpoint is reached.

Figure 3. Exothermic titration curve of the potassium determination in potash (blue = titration curve, pink = second derivative showing the endpoint).

For more detailed information about thermometric titration of potassium, download our free application notes:


Sulfur is a secondary macronutrient and plays an important role in chloroplast growth as well as acting as a catalyst for nitrogen uptake. Sulfur is usually provided in the form of sulfate. Sulfuric acid also influences the wet phosphoric acid production process, and therefore knowledge of its content is crucial.

Conventionally, sulfur is determined by gravimetry. The same precipitation reaction with barium is also used for the thermometric titration, without time-consuming drying to weight.

For the analysis, an appropriate aliquot of sample is added to the titration vessel and acidified (if necessary). The solution is then made up to 30 mL with deionized water and titrated with barium chloride until after the exothermic endpoint. For improved method sensitivity, the samples can be spiked with a standard sulfuric acid solution.

Figure 4. Exothermic titration curve of the sulfate determination in an NPK fertilizer spiked with a known amount of sulfuric acid for better endpoint recognition (blue = titration curve, pink = second derivative showing the endpoint).

For more detailed information about thermometric titration of sulfur, download our free application documents:


Thermometric titration is an inexpensive analysis method without the need for costly maintenance or calibrations. It provides a rapid and robust solution for the determination of multiple parameters in fertilizers. If you wish to learn more about thermometric titration and its potential to solve application challenges do not hesitate to contact your local Metrohm representative!

For more information, read our White Paper

Multiparameter analysis in fertilizers – Fast and easy via thermometric titration

Post written by Lucia Meier, Technical Editor at Metrohm International Headquarters, Herisau, Switzerland.

Unmatched flexibility in online ion analysis: The 2060 IC Process Analyzer

Unmatched flexibility in online ion analysis: The 2060 IC Process Analyzer

When discussing chemical analysis, the first thing that comes to mind is a chemist working in the laboratory analyzing a sample.

However, in the industrial process world chemical analysis is a much more complicated affair. In the metalworking industry for example, corrosion is a complex problem. The conventional approach (offline analysis systems) is costly, and a more proactive approach is needed for prevention, identification, and manufacturing of high quality metalworking products. Therefore, a more comprehensive sample monitoring and analysis approach is necessary in order to comply with such requirements.

While offline analysis systems depend upon an analyst to collect and process samples, an online analysis system allows for continuous monitoring of multiple parameters in real time without being dependent on an analyst.

Need to refresh your knowledge about the differences between online, inline, and atline analysis? Read our blog post: «We are pioneers: Metrohm Process Analytics».

The implementation of Process Analytical Technologies (PAT) provides a detailed representation in real time of the actual conditions within a process. As a complete solution provider, Metrohm Process Analytics offers the best solutions for online chemical analysis. We seek to optimize process analysis by developing flexible, modular process analyzers that allow multiple analyses of different analytes from a representative sample taken directly at the process site.

Want to learn more about PAT? Check out our article series here: «To automate or not to automate? Advantages of PAT – Part 1».

2060 IC Process Analyzer

With more than 40 years of experience with online process analysis, Metrohm Process Analytics has always been committed to innovation. In 2001, the first modular IC system was developed at Metrohm and it was a success. In the past several years Metrohm Process Analytics focused on implementing more modular flexibility in their products, which resulted in the introduction of the next generation of Process Ion Chromatographs: the 2060 IC Process Analyzer (Figure 1) in 2019. It is built using two 930 Compact IC Flex systems and is in full synergy with the Metrohm process analyzer portfolio (such as the 2060 Process Analyzer).

Figure 1. The 2060 IC Process Analyzer from Metrohm Process Analytics. Pictured here is the touchscreen human interface, the analytical wet part (featuring additional sample preparation modules – top inlay, and the integrated IC – bottom inlay), and a reagent cabinet.

For more background behind the development of IC solutions for the process world, check out our previous blog posts featuring the past of the 2060 IC Process Analyzer:

Using the 2060 platform, modularity is taken to the next step. Configurations of up to four wet part cabinets allow numerous combinations of multiple analysis modules for multiparameter measurements on multiple process streams, making this analyzer unequal to any other on the market.

This modular architecture gives the additional possibility to place separate cabinets in different locations around a production site for a wide angle view of the process. For example, the 2060 IC Process Analyzer can be set up at different locations to prevent corrosion on the water steam cycles in fossil and nuclear power plants.

The 2060 IC Process Analyzer is managed using flexible software enabling straightforward efficient control and programming options. With multiple types of detectors available from Metrohm, high precision analysis of a wide spectrum of analytes is possible in parallel.

The inclusion of an optional (pressureless) ultrapure water system for autonomous operation and reliable trace analysis also benefits users by providing continuous eluent production possibilities for unattended operation (Figure 2).

Finally, the well-known Metrohm Inline Sample Preparation (MISP) techniques are an added bonus for process engineers for repeatable, fully automated preparation of challenging sample matrices.

Figure 2. Continuous eluent production integrated in the 2060 IC Process Analyzer.

Top applications

The collection of samples and process data, including corrosion prevention and control indicators, is critical for efficient plant management in many industries. In order to prevent unscheduled plant shutdowns, accidents, and damage to company assets, process engineers rely on their colleagues in the lab to pinpoint corrosion problems. One of the most effective ways to bridge laboratory analyses to the process environment is to employ real-time analysis monitoring.

Figure 3. Product and process optimization differences between offline, atline, online, and inline analysis.

Optimal online corrosion management

Be it quantifying the harmful corrosive ions (e.g., chlorides, sulfates, or organic acids), measuring corrosion inhibitors (e.g., ammonia, amines, and film-forming amines), or detecting corrosion products, the 2060 IC Process Analyzer is the ideal solution for 24/7 unattended analysis.

In a nuclear power plant, this analyzer can measure a number of analytes including inorganic anions, organic cations, and aliphatic amines to ensure a thorough understanding of corrosive indications without needing multiple instruments.

Figure 4. Water sample from the primary circuit of a pressurized water reactor containing 2 g/L H3BO3 and 3.3 mg/L LiOH spiked with 2 μg/L anions (preconcentration volume: 2000 μL).
Figure 5. Simulated sample from the primary circuit of a pressurized water reactor containing 2 g/L H3BO3 and 3.3 mg/L LiOH spiked with 2 μg/L nickel, zinc, calcium, and magnesium (preconcentration volume: 1000 μL).

Providing quick, reliable results, this system gives valuable insight into the status of corrosion processes within a plant by continuous comparison of results with control values. By correlating the results with specific events, effective corrective action can quickly be undertaken to prevent or minimize plant downtime.

For more information about the determination of anions and cations in the primary circuit of nuclear power plants with the 2060 IC Process Analyzer, download our free Application Notes below.

Online drinking water analysis

In drinking water plants and beverage bottling companies, determination of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) like bromate is crucial due to their carcinogenic properties. The carcinogen bromate (BrO3) has a recommended concentration limit of 10 μg/L of in drinking water set by the World Health Organization.

Nowadays, ion chromatography has been proven to be the best routine analysis method for water analysis, due to its possibility of automated sample preparation, various separation mechanisms, and different types of detectors. Some of the analytical standards that support this include: EPA 300.1EPA 321.8, ASTM D6581, ISO 11206, and ISO 15061.

The 2060 IC Process Analyzer can monitor trace levels of bromate in drinking water online, meaning higher throughput, less time spent performing manual laboratory tests, and better quality drinking water.

Figure 6. Drinking water sample, spiked with 10 μg/L each of chlorite, bromate, chlorate, 40 μg/L each of nitrate, bromide, 100 μg/L phosphate, and 500 μg/L dichloroacetate.
Figure 7. Analysis of a mineral water sample spiked with 0.5 μg/L bromate.

To learn more about the online analysis of bromate in drinking water with the 2060 IC Process Analyzer, download our free Application Note.

Monitoring aerosols and gases in air

Approximately 92% of the world population lives in places where the World Health Organization air quality guideline levels are not met. Air pollution can exacerbate preexisting health conditions and shorten lifespans. It has even been suggested as a link to infertility causes. Hence, understanding the impact of air pollution and air constituents on the environment and our wellbeing is of great significance.

Air pollution is caused not only by gaseous compounds, but also by aerosols and particulate matter (PM). These extremely fine particles enter and damage the lungs; from them, ultrafine particles can spread across the body through the blood cells and cause symptoms of inflammation. While these risks are being debated and researched actively around the world, it is still not known which compounds actually cause harm.

As a result, there is a great need for more specific data on long-term measurements. Fast analytical methods and real-time measurements of concentrations of chemical compounds in ambient air are important and should make it possible to better understand the circumstances and effects.

For optimal air quality monitoring, the gas and aerosol composition of the surrounding air has to be analyzed practically simultaneously as well as continuously, which is possible via inline analysis with ion chromatography.

Metrohm Process Analytics offers the 2060 MARGA (Monitor for AeRosols and Gases in ambient Air) which thanks to its dual-channel ion chromatograph, can automatically analyze the ions from the collected gas and aerosol samples.

If you want to learn more background behind the development of the 2060 MARGA, check out our previous blog post: History of Metrohm IC – Part 5.

For a full list of free downloadable 2060 IC applications, visit our website and check out the Metrohm Application Finder!

Free Application Notes

For the 2060 IC Process Analyzer

Post written by Andrea Ferreira, Technical Writer at Metrohm Applikon, Schiedam, The Netherlands.

Supercharge your battery research – Part 1

Supercharge your battery research – Part 1

Replacing traditional fuel-powered vehicles with battery-powered options is essential to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. This greenhouse gas results from the combustion of fossil fuels, therefore limiting its input into the atmosphere will also influence global warming. Battery research therefore focuses on discovering new materials with higher energy and power density as well as a more efficient energy storage.

Various critical parameters need to be determined to develop viable new batteries. In this first of two blog posts, I want to highlight a few of the analytical parameters which can be determined using high precision analytical instruments from Metrohm and provide some free downloads in this research area.

What’s in a lithium battery?

Today, lithium ion batteries are the most common rechargeable batteries available on the market. A battery consists of an anode (negative pole) and cathode (positive pole). An electrolyte facilitates charge transfer in the form of lithium ions between these two poles. Meanwhile a separator placed between anode and cathode prevents short-circuits. An example cross section can be seen in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Cross-section illustration of a lithium ion battery. While the battery is being charged, lithium ions migrate from the cathode to the anode (from right to left), and during discharging they move from the anode to the cathode (from left to right).

The anode is made from graphite containing intercalated lithium applied to a copper foil, while the cathode consists of metal oxides dotted with lithium ions applied to an aluminum foil. The most common transition metals used in cathode materials are cobalt, nickel, manganese, or iron. The electrolyte is an anhydrous aprotic solvent containing a lithium salt (e.g., lithium hexafluorophosphate) to facilitate charge transfer. The separator is prepared from a porous material, acting as an insulator to prevent short-circuits. The composition of all of these components has a significant influence on the battery characteristics.

After this brief overview about the composition of a lithium battery, let’s take a look at selected key parameters and how they can be analyzed.

Water content in battery raw materials

Lithium-ion batteries should be free of water (concentration of H2O less than 20 mg/kg), because water reacts with the conducting salt (e.g., LiPF6) to form toxic hydrofluoric acid. Sensitive coulometric Karl Fischer titration is the ideal method for determining water content at trace levels. Water determination for solids is carried out using the Karl Fischer oven method – the residual moisture in the sample is evaporated and transferred to the titration cell where it is subsequently titrated. The working principle and advantages of the KF oven method are described in more detail in our blog post «Oven method for sample preparation in Karl Fischer titration».

For more details on how to carry out the water determination in one of the following battery components, download our free Application Bulletin AB-434:


  • raw materials for the manufacture of lithium-ion batteries
  • electrode coating preparations (slurry) for anode and cathode coating
  • the coated anode and cathode foils as well as in separator foils and in packed foil layers
  • electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

Transition metal composition of cathode materials

The cathode of a lithium-ion battery is usually made from metal oxides derived from cobalt, nickel, manganese, iron, or aluminum. To produce the cathode, solutions containing the desired metal salts are used. For an optimized production process, the exact content of the metals present in the solution must be known. Additionally, the metal composition within the obtained cathode material should be determined. Potentiometric titration is a suitable technique to determine the metal content in starting solutions and the finished cathode materials.

The following mixtures of metals or metal oxides can be analyzed potentiometrically:

  • Nickel, cobalt, and manganese in solutions
  • Nickel, cobalt, and manganese in cathode materials such as cobalt tetraoxide (Co3O4), lithium manganite, or lithium cobaltite

For more details about the potentiometric analysis of a mixture of nickel, cobalt, and manganese download our free Application Note AN-T-218.

Analysis of lithium salts

Potentiometric titration is also ideally suited for determining the purity of lithium salts. For lithium hydroxide and lithium carbonate, the purity is determined using an aqueous acid-base titration. It is also possible to determine carbonate impurity within lithium hydroxide using this method.

For more details about performing the assay of lithium hydroxide and lithium carbonate, download our free Application Note AN-T-215.

For the assay of lithium chloride and lithium nitrate, the lithium is directly titrated using the precipitation reaction between lithium and fluoride in ethanolic solutions. For more details about how to carry out the assay of lithium chloride, download Application Note AN-T-181 and for lithium nitrate download AN-T-216.

The knowledge of other cations which might be present in lithium salts (and their concentration) is also of interest. Various cations (e.g., sodium, ammonium, or calcium) can be determined using ion chromatography (IC). IC is an efficient and precise multi-parameter method to quantify anions and cations over a wide concentration range.

The chromatogram in Figure 2 shows the separation of lithium, sodium, and calcium in a lithium ore processing stream.

Figure 2. Ion chromatogram of the lithium ore processing stream (1: lithium, 23.8 g/L; 2: sodium, 1.55 g/L; 3: calcium, 0.08 g/L).

For more information on how this analysis was carried out, download our free Application Note AN-C-189.

Eluated ions and decomposition products

In the development and optimization of lithium-ion batteries, one of the items of special interest is the content of ions (e.g., lithium, fluoride, and hexafluorophosphate) in the electrolyte or in eluates of different components. Ion chromatography allows the determination of decomposition products in electrolyte, or anions and cations eluated for example from finished batteries. Additionally, any sample preparation steps that might be required (e.g., preconcentration, dilution, filtration) can be automated with the Metrohm Inline Sample Preparation («MISP») techniques.

For more detailed information about selected IC applications for battery research, check out our Application Notes:

  • Cations in lithium hexafluorophosphate (AN-C-037)
  • Trace cations in lithium hexafluorophosphate (AN-CS-011)
  • Anions in electrolyte (AN-N-012)
  • Decomposition products of lithium hexaflurophosphate (AN-S-372)


This blog post contains only part of the analyses for battery research which are possible using Metrohm’s analytical instruments. Part 2 will deal with the electrochemical characterization of batteries and their raw materials. Don’t want to miss out? Subscribe to the blog at the bottom of the page.

If you want to see a complete overview about the analyses which are possible with our portfolio, have a look at our brochure on Battery research and production.

Battery research

Positive experiences with top quality Metrohm equipment!

Post written by Lucia Meier, Technical Editor at Metrohm International Headquarters, Herisau, Switzerland.

Recipes with Raman

Recipes with Raman

Many of us have spent more time in the kitchen in the past year than usual, (re)discovering our culinary skills with varying degrees of success. Our pantries have been kept full, and our stoves on for a year (and counting) since our normal, social ways of life have been curtailed by home office regulations, online schooling, and the sweeping closures of bars and restaurants.

Cooking at home can mean a number of things. Some people rely on «Chef Mike» (i.e., the microwave) to prepare their meals, while others turn humble ingredients into haute cuisine dishes. However, most people would probably agree that the keys to delicious and nutritious meals are fresh, high quality ingredients.

What is on your menu today? For breakfast, perhaps toast and some fresh pressed orange juice, lunch is maybe a quiche with tomatoes and cheese, and for dinner, stir-fried vegetables accompanied by a glass of good wine. Hungry yet?

With all of this talk about food, how can you be certain that the ingredients you are using in the kitchen are of the highest quality? You may trust in the grocery store, the brand, or the farmer at your local market, but do you know how different food quality parameters are measured?

One technique provides rapid, non-destructive and specific food quality testing: Raman spectroscopy. Whether you are looking to determine the ripeness of fruits or vegetables, the adulteration of spices or dairy products, or contamination of foods with banned pesticides, Raman spectroscopy is at the cutting edge of food quality analysis.

If you want to refresh your knowledge about Raman spectroscopy, have a look at our previous blog post about Mira, which includes some history about the technique.

To learn more about the analysis of trace adulterants in foods and beverages, read our blog post all about measurement with SERS (surface‐enhanced Raman scattering).

Are you confused about the differences between Raman spectroscopy and SERS? You’re not alone! Check out our blog post about these two techniques and learn about their benefits.

Here, we share a selection of peer-reviewed articles from the scientific community using Raman spectroscopy and portable instrumentation from B&W Tek, a Metrohm Group Company and Metrohm Raman to address quality issues of food. Enjoy your meal! Bon appetit!

~~ Starter ~~

To begin, maybe you would be interested in sharing a bottle of red wine with your companion as you snack on some crispy bread sticks. Red wines are made from red varieties of grapes, whose color is imparted through the crushing process as the skins soak in the sugary juices. Phenolic compounds derived from the grape skins can be beneficial to human health, and can be determined with Raman spectroscopy [1].

It’s not only beneficial compounds but also harmful contaminants that can be measured in beverages with Raman spectroscopy. Fungicides can also be detected in wine with SERS. Download our free Application Note if you want to find out more.

Watch our video below to see how methanol in alcoholic drinks is quantified rapidly without sample preparation – right at the bottle!

Snacking on prepackaged foods when you are on the go, or when you don’t feel like cooking at the moment, is something we have all done. The moisture levels in most of these foods is kept to a minimum, especially in those meant to have long shelf lives. Water content above certain levels allows harmful bacteria to grow, which is one of the major reasons to always consult the date of packaged foods before consumption. Eating contaminated foods can cause severe sickness and even death. It is possible to determine whether such low moisture foods (LMFs) contain harmful levels of these bacteria with SERS [2].

What else do both of these applications have in common? Both of them utilize the portable i-Raman Plus instrument from B&W Tek. For more information, download our free application note: Portable Raman for Quantification of Methanol in Contaminated Spirits.

~~Main Course~~

Depending on what you are in the mood for, anything is possible. Some tomatoes, vegetables, spices, perhaps meat (if you eat it) and a starch are on the menu today, ready to be turned into almost any dish.

Determining whether fresh foods are at peak ripeness can be a tricky process, not necessarily just the change of a color. The ripeness of a fruit or vegetable indicates its antioxidant content, as well as nutrients and other beneficial compounds. Monitoring the ripening process is possible with portable Raman spectroscopy [3], such as the B&W Tek i-Raman Pro.

Some of us like a little heat in our meals. Unfortunately, the adulteration of spices like chili powder (sometimes known as cayenne powder) is common, as cheap and harmful coloring agents are added to achieve more profits at the cost of human health. These synthetic dyes are able to be determined easily even at trace levels with SERS [4].

Download our free Application Note to learn more about the detection of trace levels of Rhodamine B in cayenne powder with SERS.

Some types of cheese command a high price for what seems like just a small pinch. One such type is Parmigiano Reggiano, an Italian cheese with a protected denomination of origin (PDO) quality marker, made in compliance with several production rules. These cheeses are subject to counterfeiting, but luckily this is easy to determine on-site without damaging the sample using handheld Raman spectroscopy [5].

The price of meat varies according to several reasons, even for the same animal source, section (cut), and portion size. Among these is the origin of the meat, as well as how it was produced (e.g., organic or a factory farm). Determining the difference between premium meat products and lower quality ones is possible with handheld Raman systems [6] such as Mira from Metrohm Raman. Not only these differences but also the freshness of meat during the production process can be measured with portable Raman devices [7] like the i-Raman Plus from B&W Tek.

Using lower quality cooking oil with a low smoke point at high temperatures can result in consumption of harmful byproducts formed during cooking. Older oils have a lower antioxidant content as a result of the aging process, and can become rancid when the antioxidant properties vanish. For these reasons, high quality edible oils full of antioxidants are worth much more, but are also susceptible to adulteration with cheaper ingredients. It is possible to not only determine the purity of edible oils by Raman spectroscopy [8] but also the heat stability of different types of oils [9].

For more information about the analysis of edible oils by Raman spectroscopy, download our free Application Notes and our White Paper below!

~~ Dessert ~~

After dinner is over, a hot beverage like tea can be nice to cleanse the palate. How can you be sure that the tea is free of banned pesticides, other than buying from a trusted organic label? SERS allows rapid identification of such substances in tea leaves [10].

To learn more about detecting illegal compounds such as herbicides on tea leaves, download our free Application Note.

The honey you put in your tea or drizzle over your dessert can also be subjected to tampering. Depending on the type of flower or the origin of the honey, costs can vary widely for the same volume. Some honeys (e.g., Manuka) claim to impart certain health benefits, and therefore many lower quality products with cheap sweeteners (e.g., high fructose corn syrup) are falsely labeled as such and sold at a higher price point to unsuspecting consumers. It is possible to detect honey adulteration [11] and even its botanical origin [12] with Raman spectroscopy.

Not only tea and honey, but also coffee and the milk added to it can be analyzed with Raman spectroscopy to determine various quality markers and adulterants.

The protein content of milk can be falsely enhanced with the addition of melamine. This compound is now monitored in dairy products due to scandals which led to deaths from kidney damage. Melamine [13] and other substances which can contribute to ill health effects [14] can be easily determined in milk with SERS.

Want to learn more about Melamine and how to measure it with SERS? Check out our free Application Note for further information.

Download our free Application Note to learn about the rapid detection of the alkaloid trigonelline in coffee, which reduces in concentration the darker the beans are roasted.

The ripeness of fruits and vegetables is not just important information when planning meals, but it is also critical for food transport. Perishable fruits and vegetables are often shipped in an unripened state so they arrive at their destination in top condition.

Freshness in citrus fruits can be determined with portable Raman instruments by measuring the carotenoid content [15].

Aside from the freshness, it is also possible to detect if pesticides, fungicides, herbicides or other harmful substances have been sprayed onto fruits using SERS [16].

Check out our selection of free Application Notes below about the determination of these kinds of substances on different fruits with Misa.

Several food quality parameters can be measured quickly and easily with Raman spectroscopy without the need to open bottles or destroy samples. Portable and handheld instruments make measurements simple to perform nearly anywhere. Visit the Metrohm website to learn more about the possibilities with Raman!

Learn more about rapid food analysis with Raman spectroscopy

Download free applications directly from our website.


[1] Dranca, F.; Oroian, M. Kinetic Improvement of Bioactive Compounds Extraction from Red Grape (Vitis vinifera Moldova) Pomace by Ultrasonic Treatment. Foods 2019, 8, 353. doi:10.3390/foods8080353

[2] Pan, C.; Zhu, B.; Yu, C. A Dual Immunological Raman-Enabled Crosschecking Test (DIRECT) for Detection of Bacteria in Low Moisture Food. Biosensors 2020, 10, 200. doi:10.3390/bios10120200

[3] Trebolazabala, J.; Maguregui, M.; Morillas, H.; et al. Portable Raman spectroscopy for an in-situ monitoring the ripening of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 2017, 180, 138–143. doi:10.1016/j.saa.2017.03.024

[4] Lin, S.; Hasi, W.-L.-J.; Lin, X.; et al. Rapid and sensitive SERS method for determination of Rhodamine B in chili powder with paper-based substrates. Analytical Methods 2015, 7, 5289–5294. doi:10.1039/c5ay00028a

[5] Li Vigni, M.; Durante, C.; Michelini, S.; et al. Preliminary Assessment of Parmigiano Reggiano Authenticity by Handheld Raman Spectroscopy. Foods 2020, 9(11), 1563. doi:10.3390/foods9111563

[6] Logan, B.; Hopkins, D.; Schmidtke, L.; et al. Authenticating common Australian beef production systems using Raman spectroscopy. Food Control 2021, 121, 107652. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2020.107652

[7] Santos, C; Zhao, J.; Dong, X.; et al. Predicting aged pork quality using a portable Raman device. Meat Science 2018, 145, 79–85. doi:10.1016/j.meatsci.2018.05.021

[8] Liu, Z.; Yu, S.; Xu, S.; et al. Ultrasensitive Detection of Capsaicin in Oil for Fast Identification of Illegal Cooking Oil by SERRS. ACS Omega 2017, 2, 8401–8406. doi:10.1021/acsomega.7b01457

[9] Alvarenga, B.; Xavier, F.; Soares, F.; et al. Thermal Stability Assessment of Vegetable Oils by Raman Spectroscopy and Chemometrics. Food Analytical Methods 2018, 11, 1969–1976. doi:10.1007/s12161-018-1160-y

[10] Yao, C.; Cheng, F.; Wang, C.; et al. Separation, identification and fast determination of organophosphate pesticide methidathion in tea leaves by thin layer chromatography–surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Analytical Methods 2013, 5, 5560. doi:10.1039/c3ay41152d

[11] Li, S.; Shan, Y.; Zhu, X.; et al. Detection of honey adulteration by high fructose corn syrup and maltose syrup using Raman spectroscopy. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 2012, 28, 69–74. doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2012.07.006

[12] Oroian, M.; Ropciuc, S. Botanical authentication of honeys based on Raman spectra. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization 2017, 12, 545–554. doi:10.1007/s11694-017-9666-3

[13] Nieuwoudt, M.; Holroyd, S.; McGoverin, C.; et al. Rapid, sensitive, and reproducible screening of liquid milk for adulterants using a portable Raman spectrometer and a simple, optimized sample well. Journal of Dairy Science 2016, 99, 7821–7831. doi:10.3168/jds.2016-11100

[14] Lin, X.; Hasi, W.-L.-J.; Lou, X.-T.; et al. Rapid and simple detection of sodium thiocyanate in milk using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy based on silver aggregates. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 2014, 45, 162–167. doi:10.1002/jrs.4436

[15] Nekvapil, F.; Brezestean, I.; Barchewitz, D.; et al. Citrus fruits freshness assessment using Raman spectroscopy. Food Chemistry 2018, 242, 560–567. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.09.105

[16] Xie, J.; Li, L.; Khan, I.; et al. Flexible paper-based SERS substrate strategy for rapid detection of methyl parathion on the surface of fruit. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 2020, 231, 118104. doi:10.1016/j.saa.2020.118104

Post written by Dr. Sara Seiffert (Product Specialist Spectroscopy at Metrohm Deutschland) and Dr. Alyson Lanciki (Scientific Editor at Metrohm International Headquarters).

Chemistry of Chocolate

Chemistry of Chocolate

Swiss… Belgian… Pure… Milk…

Here we are in mid-February again, bombarded by chocolate from all sides in preparation for Valentine’s Day on the 14th. Whether in a solid bar, as a chewy truffle, or as a luxurious drink, chocolate has completely infiltrated our lives. Most people can agree that this confectionary treat is fantastic for any occasion – to be given as a gift, to recover after having a bad day, as well as to celebrate a good one – chocolate is certainly meant to be enjoyed.

Even if you don’t like the taste, the chances are high that someone close to you does. So how can you be certain of its quality?

Components of a chocolate bar

For the sake of this article, let us consider the humble chocolate bar, without any extra additions (not to mention any Golden Tickets). This form can be found worldwide in nearly any grocery store or candy shop, generally designated as white, milk, or dark.

All of this variability comes from the edible seeds in the fruit of the cacao tree, which grows in hot, tropical regions around the equator. They must be fermented and then roasted after cleaning. From this, cocoa mass is produced, which is a starting base for several uses. Cocoa butter and cocoa solids are prepared from the cocoa mass and are utilized in products ranging from foods and beverages to personal care items.

As for chocolate bars, these are generally sweetened and modified from the pure form, which is very bitter. Milk (liquid, condensed, or powdered) is added to many types, but does not necessarily have to be present. Varying the content of the cocoa solids and cocoa butter in chocolate to different degrees results in the classifications of dark to white. While some dark chocolates do not contain any milk, white chocolates do to add to the significant amounts of cocoa fat used to produce them.

In general, dark chocolate contains a high ratio of cocoa solids to cocoa butter and may or may not contain any milk. It may be sweetened or unsweetened. Milk chocolate is a much broader category, containing less cocoa solids but not necessarily a different cocoa butter content compared to dark chocolate, as milk fats are also introduced. Milk chocolate is also sweetened, either with sugar or other substitutes. White chocolate contains no cocoa solids at all, but a blend of cocoa butter and milk, along with sweeteners.

Depending on the country, there are different regulations in place regarding the classification of the type of chocolate. If you are interested, you can find a selection of them here.

What makes your favorite chocolate unique?

Of course, more ingredients are added to chocolate bars to affect a number of things like the aroma, texture/mouthfeel, and certainly to enhance the flavor. The origin of the cacao beans, much like coffee, can impart certain characteristics to the resulting chocolate. The manufacturing process also plays a major part in determining e.g., whether the chocolate has a characteristic snap or has a distinct scent, setting it apart from other brands.

In some cases, vegetable fats are used to replace a portion of the cocoa fats, although this may not legally be considered «chocolate» in some countries. The adjustment of long-standing recipes for certain chocolate brands has sometimes led to customer backlash, as quality is perceived to have changed. Truly, chocolate is inextricably tied to our hearts.

Applications for chocolate quality analysis

Nobody wants to give their Valentine a bad gift, especially out-of-date chocolate from a dubious source. Here, we have prepared some interesting analyses for different chocolate quality parameters in the laboratory.

Sugar analysis via Ion Chromatography (IC)

Most types of chocolate contain sugars or sugar substitutes to sweeten the underlying bitterness. Considering different regulations regarding food labeling and also nutritional content, the accurate reporting of sugars is important for manufacturers and consumers alike.

Sugar analysis in chocolate can be performed with Metrohm IC and Pulsed Amperometric Detection (PAD). An example chromatogram of this analysis is given below.

A small amount of commercially produced sweetened milk chocolate was weighed and dissolved into ultrapure water. After further sample preparation using Metrohm Inline Ultrafiltration, the sample (20 µL) was injected on to the Metrosep Carb 2 – 150/4.0 separation column and separated using alkaline eluent. As shown, both lactose and sucrose elute without overlap in less than 20 minutes.

Learn more about Metrohm Inline Ultrafiltration for difficult sample matrices and safeguard your IC system!

In this example, the sugar content was listed on the label as 47 g per 100 g portion (470 g/kg). Lactose was determined to be 94.6 g/kg, and sucrose was measured at 385.6 g/kg. To learn about what other carbohydrates, sweeteners, and more can be determined in chocolate and other foods with Metrohm IC, download our free brochure about Food Analysis and check out the table on page 25!

Lactose content in lactose-free chocolate

The accurate measurement of lactose in lactose-free products, including chocolate, is of special importance to consumers who are lactose-intolerant and suffer from digestive issues after eating it. Foods which are labelled as lactose-free must adhere to guidelines concerning the actual non-zero lactose content. Foodstuff containing less than 0.1 g lactose per100 g (or 100 mL) is most frequently declared as lactose-free.

Determination of lactose in chocolate is possible with IC. Here is an chromatographic overlay of a dissolved chocolate sample with lactose spikes which was analyzed via Metrohm IC using the flexiPAD detection mode.

Milk chocolate, labelled lactose-free measured via Metrohm IC (0.57 ± 0.06 mg/100 g lactose, n = 6).

The sample contained 0.6 mg lactose per 100 g, with measurement of the lactose peak occurring at 13.2 minutes. The black line is the unspiked lactose-free chocolate sample, red and blue are spiked samples of increasing concentration. To prepare the samples, approximately 2.5–5 g chocolate was dissolved in heated ultrapure water, using Carrez reagents to remove excess proteins and fats from the sample matrix. Afterward, centrifugation of the samples was performed, followed by the direct injection of the supernatant (10 µL) into the IC system. Measurement was performed with the Metrosep Carb 2 – 250/4.0 separation column and an alkaline eluent.

Interested in lactose determinations with ion chromatography? Download our free Application Notes on the Metrohm website!

Water determination with Karl Fischer Titration

The amount of water in foods, including chocolate, can affect their shelf life and stability, as well as contribute to other physical and chemical factors. Aside from this, during the processing stage, the amount of water present affects the flow characteristics of the chocolate mass.

AOAC Official Method 977.10 lists Karl Fischer titration as the accepted analysis method for moisture in cacao products.

The determination of moisture in different chocolate products is exhibited in the following downloadable poster. As an example, several samples (n = 10) of dark chocolate (45% cocoa content) were analyzed for their moisture content with Metrohm Karl Fischer titration.  Results were found to be 0.96% water with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.73%. More information about this analysis can be found in our poster about automated water determination in chocolate, or in chapter 11.6 of our comprehensive Monograph about Karl Fischer titration.

Oxidation stability with the Rancimat test

Oxidation stability is an important quality criterion of chocolate as it provides information about the long-term stability of the product. Cocoa contains various flavonoids that act as antioxidants. Although the flavonoid content may vary amongst chocolate type, in general, the greater the content of cocoa solids in the chocolate, the greater its antioxidant effect.

The 892 Professional Rancimat from Metrohm determines the oxidation stability of fat-containing foods and cosmetics. The Rancimat method accelerates the aging process of the sample and measures the induction time or oxidation stability index (OSI).

Chocolate cannot be measured directly with the classical Rancimat method, as no evaluable induction time is obtained. There are many reasons for this: e.g., the fat content is too low. Traditionally, extraction of the fat from the chocolate is necessary, but not always.

Learn more about the Rancimat method on our website, and download our free Application Note about the oxidation stability of chocolate. In this Application Note, the oxidation stability of white, milk and dark chocolate is determined without extraction.

Cadmium in chocolate by Voltammetric analysis

The toxic element cadmium (Cd) can be found in elevated concentrations with high bioavailability in some soils. Under such conditions, cacao trees can accumulate cadmium in the beans. Chocolate produced from the affected beans will contain elevated cadmium levels.

Typical limit values for Cd in chocolate in the European Union are between 100 µg/kg and 800 µg/kg (EU Commission Regulation 1881/2006) depending on the cocoa content of the chocolate. Anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) can be used to accurately determine trace quantities of cadmium in chocolate down to approximately 10 µg/kg. The method is simple to perform, specific, and free of interferences.

Chocolate samples are first mineralized by dry ashing in a furnace at 450 °C for several hours. The remaining ash is then dissolved in an acidified matrix. The cadmium determination is then carried out on the 884 Professional VA instrument from Metrohm. To learn more about how to perform the analysis, download our free Application Note.

Happy Valentine’s Day from us all at Metrohm!

Post written by Dr. Alyson Lanciki, Scientific Editor at Metrohm International Headquarters, Herisau, Switzerland.