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Exposing secrets of ancient Greek civilization through chemistry

Exposing secrets of ancient Greek civilization through chemistry

This week, learn the story of how analytical instrumentation from Metrohm helps underwater archaeology locate hidden treasures beneath the seafloor.

 

Antikythera Mechanism: a machine lost to time

One of the most fascinating items ever salvaged from an ancient shipwreck is the so-called «Antikythera Mechanism». More than 2000 years old, this magnificent piece of mechanical engineering forced the scientific community to rewrite the history of science as it became clear that its unknown maker must have possessed knowledge and skills that were believed to simply not exist in the 1st century BC.

Figure 1. Digital reconstruction of the Antikythera Mechanism.

The Antikythera Mechanism was a complex and highly precise lunar and solar calendar that could also predict solar and lunar eclipses as well as the future dates of the Panhellenic Games. The complexity and precision of this machine inspired not only scientists but also Hublot, the Swiss brand famous for their luxury watches. Not only did Hublot recreate the Antikythera Mechanism in a wristwatch but they also started their own underwater archaeology program. This project of Hublot is fascinating—and we from Metrohm are part of it on every dive.

 The device was retrieved from an ancient shipwreck (70 BC) found off the coast of the Greek island of Antikythera in 1901. Since then, researchers have tried to get to the bottom of its mysteries. Dated to approximately 100 BC, the Antikythera Mechanism was a shockingly complex piece of machinery, the likes of which were not seen elsewhere for at least another millennium.

One of the challenges faced by underwater archeology is the fact that the cargo and debris of ancient shipwrecks is often randomly scattered across vast areas on the seafloor and also often covered by sediments. Because only fragments of the mechanism have been found and recovered, retrieving the missing pieces of the Antikythera Mechanism would be a scientific sensation.

Figure 2. Location where the Antikythera Mechanism was found in 1901 at a shipwreck in Greece.

As divers can only operate for very limited time spans at depths below 50 meters, drones are needed to investigate larger areas on the seafloor at such depths. Hublot’s engineers have built drones for this purpose, known as «Bubblots», and have equipped them with miniaturized voltammetric measuring stands from Metrohm.

«With a metal detector, all you get is «beep-beep-beep», which means there is metal around. However, in a bronze statue, there is copper, there is tin, and you have to detect the oxides of them, the exact kind of material you are facing. We have decided for Metrohm, because you are the most competent for the measuring technology we need in our drones.»

Mathias Buttet

R&D Director, Hublot

The Bubblots are utilized to perform real-time analyses of the seawater for unusual concentrations of dissolved metal salts typically associated with corroding bronze artefacts. Thus, the systematic and highly selective investigation of larger areas of seafloor for historical bronze artefacts becomes feasible.

Figure 3. Hublot’s underwater drones, known as «Bubblots», and the voltammetric measuring stand from Metrohm.

Voltammetry to the rescue

Due to its selectivity regarding different metals and their oxidation states, voltammetry is ideally suited for such investigations, as it is also very fast and robust technique. In the case of Hublot’s drones, results are obtained in a few seconds and this information can be immediately processed.

«We use this Metrohm instrument for voltammetric measurements. We take a water sample and do a live measurement of the aspirated water. The voltammetric measurement takes only a few seconds. This is enough to give us an idea of the different metals present in the solution. This allows us to do highly selective measurements very fast to cover different regions of the archaeological site.»

Sébastien Recalcati

Materials Engineer, Hublot

For a selection of free Metrohm Application Notes related to voltammetric measurements in seawater, visit our website!

Figure 4. The 910 PSTAT mini from Metrohm used in the study.
Figure 5. One of Metrohm’s disposable screen printed electrodes (SPEs) utilized in Hublot’s drone analysis of the seafloor.

Giving the Antikythera Mechanism a second life

The maker of this mechanism was far ahead of his time. He must have had skills and possessed scientific knowledge that are mind-boggling even today. The watchmakers from Hublot were inspired by this to a very special project: they rebuilt the Antikythera Mechanism in a wristwatch.

«The original Antikythera Mechanism has the size of a shoe box. Reducing the size of the mechanism and putting it into a wrist watch was not so easy. Because the Antikythera Mechanism was not a clock, it was a machine with a driving crank to show the position of the moon and the sun in relation to the stars at any given date. The absolute dream is to find the missing parts of the machine. But the debris is hidden below the seafloor, covered by sediments, one meter, sometimes two meters.»

Mathias Buttet

R&D Director, Hublot

Figure 6. The Antikythera Mechanism miniaturized and captured in a Hublot wristwatch.

We are glad to support Hublot’s archaeological mission with our analytical instruments and our expertise in chemical analysis. Metrohm wishes the Hublot team all the best.

Visit our website to learn more

about this fascinating project and to discover more related applications from Metrohm

Post written by Dr. Alyson Lanciki, Scientific Editor at Metrohm International Headquarters, Herisau, Switzerland.

Forewarned is Forearmed: Error and risk minimization in process analysis – Part 3

Forewarned is Forearmed: Error and risk minimization in process analysis – Part 3

In the course of life, each of us learns to trust our gut feelings or our experiences to avoid situations that seem dangerous or risky. You quite literally sense potential dangers with an uneasy feeling. Who hasn’t painfully learned that touching a hot stove top isn’t a good idea? Or who voluntarily goes outside during a tornado?

While humans can rely on their intuition and learned patterns to avoid dangers or use protective strategies, this is far more complicated with electronic systems or machines. All components of a system must be in a permanently safe state. Failures and malfunctions of individual components can have devastating consequences for production processes and the safety of the operators.

An example of this is the Seveso disaster in 1976, in which highly toxic dioxin TCDD escaped as a result of an uncontrolled reaction, and sustainably poisoned flora and fauna. With regard to other major chemical accidents, the European Seveso III Directive then came into force in 2012 to control major accident hazards to prevent major accidents.

Have you read Part 1 and Part 2 of our «Advantages of PAT (Process Analytical Technology)» series? If not, find them here!

Recognize, master, and avoid errors

Process engineering systems that are operated continuously contain countless components that can wear out or fail during their life cycle. However, if the measuring, control, or regulating circuit is affected, failures can cause immense damage. Under no circumstances should humans nor the environment be exposed to any kind of danger. For this reason, the functional safety of the components must be guaranteed, and their risk and hazard potential must be analyzed in detail.

The service life of mechanical components can be evaluated by observing mechanical wear and tear. However, the aging behavior of electronic components is difficult to assess. A unit of measure that makes risk reduction and thus functional safety quantifiable is the so-called «Safety Integrity Level» (SIL). 

The following procedure is followed:

  1.   Risk analysis
  2.   Realization of risk reduction
  3.   Evidence that the realized risk reduction corresponds at least to the required risk reduction

«Process analysis systems are part of the entire safety cycle of a manufacturing plant and therefore only one component whose risk of malfunctions and failures must be considered in an assessment.»

Risk assessmentA process is considered safe if the current risk has been reduced below the level of the tolerable risk. If safety is ensured by technical measures, one speaks of functional safety.

Significance for process analysis systems

Errors can happen anywhere, and can never be completely excluded. To minimize possible errors, it is therefore necessary to estimate the risk of occurrence and the damage to be expected from it as part of a risk analysis. A distinction must be made here between systematic and random errors.

Systematic errors are potentially avoidable and are caused, for example, by software errors or configuration deficiencies. Accordingly, they already exist during or prior to commissioning.

In contrast, random errors are potentially difficult to avoid because they occur arbitrarily. Nevertheless, the error rate or failure probability can be determined statistically and experimentally.

Random errors usually result from the hardware and occur during operation. Ultimately, systematic errors should be avoided, and random errors should be mastered to ensure trouble-free functionality.

Process analysis systems are the link between manual laboratory analysis and the industrial process. In applications where continuous and fully automatic monitoring of critical parameters is required, process analyzers are indispensable. Due to the different analysis conditions in the laboratory and directly in the process, there are some challenges when transferring the measurement technology from the lab to the process. The decisive factors are the working and environmental conditions (e.g., high temperatures, corrosive atmospheres, moisture, dust, or potentially explosive environments) which the process analyzers have to meet regarding their design, construction materials, and reliability of the components. The analyzer automatically and continuously transmits system and diagnostic data to prevent hardware or software components from failing through preventive measures. This significantly reduces the chance of random errors occurring.

General process analyzer setup

a) Analyzer Setup

Process analyzers have been specially developed for use in harsh and aggressive industrial environments. The IP66 protected housing is divided into two parts, and consists of separate wet and electronic parts. The electronics part contains all components relevant to control and operate the process analyzer. Modular components like burettes, valves, pumps, sampling systems, titration vessels, and electrodes can be found in the analyzer wet part. Representative samples can thus be taken from the process measuring point several meters away. The analysis procedure, the methods to be used, and method calculations are freely programmable.

A touchscreen with intuitive menu navigation allows easy operation, so that production processes can be optimized at any time. The course of the measurement is graphically represented and documented over the entire determination, so that the analysis process is completely controlled. The measurement results can be generated 24/7 and allow close and fully automatic monitoring of the process. Limits, alarms, or results are reliably transferred to the process control system.

When operating the analyzer, there is a risk that software errors can lead to failures. In order to recognize this with foresight, the system delivers self-diagnostic procedures as soon as it is powered on and also during operation. This includes, e.g., checking pumps and burettes, checking for leaks, or checking the communication between the I/O controller, the human interface, and the respective analysis module.

b) Sensors

The central component of a process analyzer is the measurement technique in use. In the case of sensors or electrodes, there are several requirements such as chemical resistance, ease of maintenance, robustness, or precision which they must meet. The safety-related risk arises from the possibility if measurement sensors fail due to aging, or if they become damaged and subsequently deliver incorrect measurement results.

Failure of the electrode, contamination, or damage must be reported immediately. With online analysis systems, the analysis is performed in an external measuring cell. In addition, recurring calibration and conditioning routines are predefined and are performed automatically. The status of the electrode is continuously monitored by the system.

Between measurements, the electrode is immersed in a membrane-friendly storage solution that prevents drying out and at the same time regenerates the swelling layer. The electrode is therefore always ready for use and does not have to be removed from the process for maintenance. This enables reliable process control even under harsh industrial conditions.

c) Analysis

Process analyzers must be able to handle samples for analysis over a wide concentration range (from % down to trace levels) without causing carry-over or cross-sensitivity issues. In many cases, different samples from several measuring points are determined in parallel in one system using different analysis techniques. The sample preparation (e.g., filtering, diluting, or wet chemical digestion) must be just as reliable and smooth as the fully automatic transfer of results to the process control system so that a quick response is possible.

Potential dangers for the entire system can be caused by incorrect measurement results. In order to minimize the risk, a detector is used to notify the system of the presence of sample in the vessel. The testing of the initial potential of the analysis or titration curves / color development in photometric measurements are diagnostic data that are continuously recorded and interpreted. Results can be verified by reference analysis or their plausibility can be clarified using standard and check solutions.

Detect errors before they arise

The risk assessment procedures that are carried out in the context of a SIL classification for process engineering plants are ultimately based on mathematical calculations. However, in the 24/7 operation of a plant, random errors can never be completely excluded. Residual risk always remains. Therefore, the importance of preventive maintenance activities is growing immensely in order to avoid hardware and software failures during operation.

A regular check of the process analyzer and its diagnostic data is the basic requirement for permanent, trouble-free operation. With tailor-made maintenance and service concepts, the analyzer is supported by certified service engineers over the entire life cycle. Regular maintenance plans, application support, calibration, or performance certificates, repairs, and original spare parts as well as proper commissioning are just a few examples.

Advantages of preventive maintenance from Metrohm Process Analytics

  • Preservation of your investment
  • Minimized risk of failure
  • Reliable measurement results
  • Calculable costs
  • Original spare parts
  • Fast repair
  • Remote Support

In addition, transparent communication between the process control system and the analyzer is also relevant in the context of digitalization. The collection of performance data from the analyzer to assess the state of the control system is only one component. The continuous monitoring of relevant system components enables conclusions to be drawn about any necessary maintenance work, which ideally should be carried out at regular intervals. The question arises as to how the collected data is interpreted and how quickly it is necessary to intervene. Software care packages help to test the software according to the manufacturer’s specifications, to perform data backup and software maintenance.

«Remote support is particularly important in times when you cannot always be on site.»

In real emergency situations in which rapid error analysis is required, manufacturers can easily support the operator remotely using remote maintenance solutions. The system availability is increased, expensive failures and downtimes are avoided, and the optimal performance of the analyzer is ensured.

Read what our customers have to say!

We have supported customers even in the most unlikely of places⁠—from the production floor to the desert and even on active ships!

Post written by Dr. Kerstin Dreblow, Product Manager Wet Chemical Process Analyzers, Deutsche Metrohm Prozessanalytik (Germany).

The role of process automation in an interconnected world – Part 2

The role of process automation in an interconnected world – Part 2

The following scenario sounds like a fictional dystopian narrative, but it is a lived reality. A catastrophe, much like the current COVID-19 crisis, is dramatically impacting society. The normality, as was known before, has suddenly changed: streets are swept empty, shops are closed, and manufacturing is reduced or at a complete standstill. But what happens to safety-related systems, e.g. in the pharmaceutical or food industry, which must not stand still and are designed in such a way that they cannot fail? How can the risk of breakdowns and downtimes be minimized? Or in the event of failure, how can the damage to people and the environment be limited or, in general, the operational sequence maintained?

Digitalization: curse or blessing? 

When considering process engineering plants, one is repeatedly confronted with buzzwords such as «Industry 4.0», «digitalization», «digital transformation», «IoT», «smart manufacturing», etc. The topic is often discussed controversially and often it is about an either-or dichotomy: either man or the machine and the associated fears. No matter what name you give to digitalization, each term here has one thing in common: intelligently networking separate locations and processes in industrial production using modern information and communication technologies. Process automation is a small but important building block that needs attention. Data can only be consistently recorded, forwarded, and reproduced with robust and reliable measurement technology.

For some time already, topics including sensors, automation, and process control have been discussed in the process industry (PAT) with the aim of reducing downtimes and optimizing the use of resources. However, it is not just about the pure collection of data, but also about their meaningful interpretation and integration into the QM system. Only a consequent assessment and evaluation can lead to a significant increase in efficiency and optimization.

This represents a real opportunity to maintain production processes with reduced manpower in times of crisis. Relevant analyses are automatically and fully transferred to the process. This enables high availability and rapid intervention, as well as the assurance of high quality requirements for both process security and process optimization. In addition, online monitoring of all system components and preventive maintenance activities effectively counteracts a failure.

Digitally networked production plants

Even though digitalization is relatively well-established in the private sector under the catchphrase «smart home», in many production areas the topic is still very much in its infancy. In order to intelligently network different processes, high demands are made. Process analysis systems make a major contribution to the analysis of critical parameters. Forwarding the data to the control room is crucial for process control and optimization. In order to correspond to the state-of-the-art, process analysis systems must meet the following requirements:

Transparent communication / operational maintenance

Processes must be continuously monitored and plant safety guaranteed. Downtimes are associated with high expenditure and costs and therefore cannot be tolerated. In order to effectively minimize the risk of failures, device-specific diagnostic data must be continuously transmitted as part of the self-check, or failures must be prevented with the help of preventive maintenance activities. Ideally, the response must be quick, and faults remedied without having to shut down the system (even remotely).

Future-proof automation

If you consider how many years (or even decades) process plants are in operation, it is self-explanatory that extensions and optimizations must be possible within their lifetime. This includes both the implementation of state-of-the-art analyzers and the communication between the systems.

Redundant systems

In order to prevent faults from endangering the entire system operation, redundancy concepts are generally used.

Practical example: Smart concepts for fermentation processes

Fermenters or bioreactors are used in a wide variety of industries to cultivate microorganisms or cells. Bacteria, yeasts, mammalian cells, or their components serve as important active ingredients in pharmaeuticals or as basic chemicals in the chemical industry. In addition, there are also degradation processes in wastewater treatment assisted by using bioreactors. Brewing kettles in beer production can also be considered as a kind of bioreactor. In order to meet the high requirements for a corresponding product yield and the maintenance of the ideal conditions for proper metabolism, critical parameters have to be checked closely, and often.

The conditions must be optimally adapted to those of the organism’s natural habitat. In addition to the pH value and temperature, this also includes the composition of the matrix, the turbidity, or the content of O2 and CO2. The creation of optimal environmental conditions is crucial for a successful cultivation of the organisms. The smallest deviations have devastating consequences for their survival, and can cause significant economic damage.

As a rule, many of the parameters mentioned are measured directly in the medium using inline probes and sensors. However, their application has a major disadvantage. Mechanical loads (e.g., glass breakage) or solids can lead to rapid material wear and contaminated batches, resulting in high operational costs. With the advent of ​​smart technologies, online analysis systems and maintenance-free sensors have become indispensable to ensure the survival of the microorganisms. In this way, reliably measured values ​​are delivered around the clock, and it is ensured that these are transferred directly to all common process control systems or integrated into existing QM systems.

Rather than manual offline measurement in a separate laboratory, the analysis is moved to an external measuring cell. The sample stream is fed to the analysis system by suction with peristaltic pumps or bypass lines. Online analysis not only enables the possibility of 24/7 operation and thus a close control of the critical parameters, but also the combination of different analysis methods and the determination of further parameters. This means that several parameters as well as multiple measuring points can be monitored with one system.

The heart of the analysis systems is the intelligent sensor technology, whose robustness is crucial for the reliable generation of measured values.

pH measurement as a vital key parameter in bioreactors

Knowledge of the exact pH value is crucial for the product yield, especially in fermentation processes. The activity of the organism and its metabolism are directly dependent on the pH value. The ideal conditions for optimal cell growth and proper metabolism are within a limited pH tolerance range, which must be continuously monitored and adjusted with the help of highly accurate sensors.

However, the exact measurement of the pH value is subject to a number of chemical, physical, and mechanical influencing factors, which means that the determination with conventional inline sensors is often too imprecise and can lead to expensive failures for users. For example, compliance with hygiene measures is of fundamental importance in the pharmaceutical and food industries. Pipelines in the production are cleaned with solutions at elevated temperatures. Fixed sensors that are exposed to these solutions see detrimental effects: significantly reduced lifespan, sensitivity, and accuracy.

Intelligent and maintenance-free pH electrodes

Glass electrodes are most commonly used for pH measurement because they are still by far the most resistant, versatile, and reliable solution. However, in many cases changes due to aging processes or contamination in the diaphragm remain undetected. Glass breakage also poses a high risk, because it may result in the entire production batch being discarded.

The aging of the pH-sensitive glass relates to the change in the hydration layer, which becomes thicker as time goes on. The consequence is a sluggish response, drift effects, or a decrease in slope. In this case, calibration or adjustment with suitable buffer solutions is necessary. Especially if there are no empirical values ​​available, short intervals are recommended, which significantly increase the effort for maintenance work.

With online process analyzers, the measurement is transferred from the process to an external measuring cell. This enables a long-lasting pH measurement to be achieved with an accuracy that is not possible with classic inline probes.

In many process solutions, measurement with process sensors takes place directly in the medium. This inevitably means that the calibration and maintenance of electrodes is particularly challenging in places that are difficult to access, leading to expensive maintenance work and downtimes. Regular calibration of the electrodes is recommended, especially when used under extreme conditions or on the edge of the defined specifications.

If the measurement is carried out with online process analyzers, then calibration, adjustment and cleaning are carried out fully automatically. The system continuously monitors the condition of the electrode. Between measurements, the electrode is immersed in a membrane-friendly storage solution that avoids drying out, and at the same time prevents the hydration layer from swelling further as it does not contain alkali ions. The electrode is always ready for use and does not have to be removed from the process for maintenance work.

The 2026 pH Analyzer from Metrohm Process Analytics is a fully automatic analysis system, e.g., for determining the pH value as an individual process parameter.

Maintenance and digitalization

In addition to the automatic monitoring of critical process parameters, transparent communication between the system and the analyzer also plays a decisive role in terms of maintenance measures. The collection of vital data from the analyzer to assess the state of the system is only one component. The continuous monitoring of relevant system components enables conclusions to be drawn about any necessary maintenance work. For example, routine checks on the condition of the electrodes (slope / zero point check, possibly automatic calibration) are carried out regularly during the analysis process. Based on the data, calibration and cleaning processes are performed fully automatically, which allow robust measurement even at measuring points that are difficult to access or in aggressive process media. This means that the operator is outside the danger zone, which contributes to increased safety.

Summary

The linking of production processes with digital technology holds a particularly large potential and contributes to the economic security of companies. In addition, the pressure is growing steadily for companies to face the demands of digitalization in production. As an example, in the area of ​​fermentation processes, the survival of the microorganisms is ensured by closely monitoring relevant parameters. Intelligent systems increase the degree of automation and can make the process along the entire value chain more efficient.

Find out in the next installment how functional safety concepts help to act before a worst case scenario comes true where errors occur and systems fail.

Want to learn more about the history of process analysis technology at Metrohm? Check out our previous blog posts:

Read what our customers have to say!

We have supported customers even in the most unlikely of places⁠—from the production floor to the desert and even on active ships!

Post written by Dr. Kerstin Dreblow, Product Manager Wet Chemical Process Analyzers, Deutsche Metrohm Prozessanalytik (Germany).

Virus detection using screen-printed electrodes

Virus detection using screen-printed electrodes

With significant global viral outbreaks becoming the norm rather than generational outliers, it is imperative that fast, sensitive, and cost-effective testing is available to the masses. It is only by a concerted effort of testing and tracing that viral outbreaks can be effectively controlled before becoming global pandemics.

Screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) allow rapid, widespread testing of populations for infectious disease, without the need of skilled personnel or burdensome equipment in the field. The possibility of point-of-care (POC) testing with SPEs has been exhibited in several recent studies. Metrohm DropSens, as a manufacturer of SPEs as well as their compact measuring devices, is the right partner for virology research projects—big and small. With a high production capability, combined with a valid ISO 13485 certification «Manufacturing of sensors for medical devices», this means testing procedures developed on DropSens SPEs can be reliably scaled up for larger operations, with easier approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). As the leading brand in the market for this printing technology, Metrohm DropSens can design custom-made SPEs and offers the expertise and exceptional customer support needed for complicated projects at scale.

Viral outbreaks and human health

Unlike the majority of bacteria, most viruses cause disease. Viruses, however, cannot survive without hosts, and therefore spread easily especially in densely populated areas. While bacterial infections can be fought with a range of antibiotics, viruses require specific vaccines, which can be extremely difficult to manufacture.

Several viral outbreaks have caught global attention and attracted calls for faster, more accessible testing, including Ebola, avian influenza virus (H5N1, H1N1, and others), hepatitis, malaria, noroviruses, dengue, adenovirus, SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome, HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and even HPV (human papillomavirus). While some are capable of killing their human hosts in a relatively short timespan, others can linger for decades.

One commonality between these diseases is that they have all been successfully tested with disposable, custom-made SPEs from Metrohm DropSens.

The global pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), more commonly known as «COVID-19», has monopolized the headlines for months. Each country’s response has varied: from the tactics of encouraging normalcy to attempt quicker herd immunity, to extremely strict quarantine measures, especially for the elderly, and the closure of borders and non-essential industries. However, the most effective way to trace and contain the spread of viruses is through comprehensive testing.

General viral testing methods and their drawbacks

The importance of testing for the presence of harmful viruses in the population cannot be overstated. In order to stop the spread of especially communicable diseases, testing must be accurate, reliable, timely, affordable, and of course widely available.

Viral testing can be accomplished via several different methods, including virus isolation cultures, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and other molecular methods like polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

High costs limit the affordability and overall availability of such tests to the general population, especially for poorer communities. Complicated analytical procedures require trained professionals, specialty chemicals, and bulky instruments, which may not be available in all areas. On top of this, the waiting time between test and result is prohibitive – sometimes taking several days, which could mean the difference between life or death.

Benefits of electrochemical testing

Recently, initiatives for diagnostic testing methods have been launched by agencies such as the WHO to create faster, more accurate, affordable tests—especially in low-resource areas. For these reasons, electrochemical testing methods have been developed on disposable screen-printed electrodes, exhibiting major promise for fast, affordable, precise testing directly at the point of care.

Speed

The rapid testing capabilities of electrochemical biosensors is among one of their greatest advantages. Results are obtained within minutes, rather than hours or days with other conventional techniques. Waiting for days for results can lead to further viral communication in the community, or even death in the absence of proper care. Earlier response is vital to stopping the spread of disease and the key to saving lives.

Limit of detection

Specific electrochemical detection techniques (e.g., voltammetric or amperometric analysis) already allow for the detection of low analyte concentrations. The high adsorption capabilities of carbon-based working electrodes where certain recognition elements are attached play a key role in the improvement of sensitivity. To further decrease the detection limit, signal amplification by chemical or electrochemical catalytic reactions are commonly used.

Ease of use

The compact size of the measuring device, not to mention the SPEs themselves, equates to complete portability for testing on the go. Simply add a small volume of sample to the electrode, insert it into the measuring device, and receive results about viral exposure in minutes.

Cost

The low cost per test is a great advantage of using screen-printed electrodes for virology studies. Each SPE is meant to be disposable after a single use, ensuring a fresh substrate for every sample. The affordability and portability of SPEs and their measuring devices makes this technique much more attractive for economically depressed areas or regions without an abundance of specialized testing facilities.

Regulatory approval

Metrohm DropSens is certified by ISO 13485 «Manufacturing of sensors for medical devices». This certification permits a simpler pathway to regulatory approval (such as by the FDA) and leads to quicker commercialization of validated tests developed on these products in the medical field.

Customization

Metrohm DropSens has the technology to develop screen-printed electrodes based on the individual needs of the customer. The configuration and dimensions of the electrodes are adapted to their specific requirements.

Selection of screen-printed electrodes manufactured by Metrohm DropSens.
Availability

The large-scale manufacturing capabilities at Metrohm DropSens guarantee a trusted, reliable source for the mass production of SPEs suitable for viral testing. With decades of electrochemical expertise, a worldwide distribution network, and top class after-sales support, the widespread commercialization of tests developed on these products is no problem.

Summary

Point-of-care testing with screen-printed electrodes allows rapid, widespread testing of populations for viral outbreaks at low cost and without the need for skilled analysts or complicated measuring equipment. Fast results mean quicker reaction times – for swift treatment, but also for tracing the spread of contagion and developing a concerted response before the situation gets more out of control.

Portability and the simplicity of use allows rapid testing with screen-printed electrodes in all situations, not only off-site in specialized laboratories with a skilled staff. Since SPEs are customizable, they can be modified and manufactured to suit the needs of all types of research groups.

Metrohm DropSens SPEs, which are ISO 13485 certified, means testing procedures developed on these products require shorter times to receive FDA approval and commercialization. The bulk manufacturing capability of Metrohm DropSens guarantees a stable commercial source for custom-made SPEs and their measuring devices at any order size—big or small.

Metrohm DropSens: a complete solution provider

As a market leader in manufacturing reliable screen-printed electrodes as well as their measuring devices, Metrohm DropSens is the ideal partner for virology studies based on electrochemical testing, as well as for other research involving SPEs. For more information, Visit the Metrohm DropSens website at www.dropsens.com to have an overview of our products, capabilities, and additional peer-reviewed scientific literature featuring these electrodes and measuring devices.

For more information, visit the Metrohm DropSens website to have an overview of our products, capabilities, and additional peer-reviewed scientific literature featuring these electrodes and measuring devices.

Download our free white paper to learn more

Virus detection: Fast, sensitive, and cost-effective with electrochemical testing

Post written by Dr. Alyson Lanciki, Scientific Editor at Metrohm International Headquarters, Herisau, Switzerland.

To automate or not to automate? Advantages of PAT – Part 1

To automate or not to automate? Advantages of PAT – Part 1

I have to admit that the technological world of process analysis seemed foreign for me for a while. When I first heard about process automation, I imagined futuristic robots that do the work, similar to modern science fiction films. Perhaps many people might have the same impression.

There is often a great deal of uncertainty about what the expression «we automate your process» actually means. In this blog series, I want to show you that process analytical technology (PAT) is less complicated than expected and offers several advantages for users.

What does process analytical technology (PAT) mean? 

I was once told in conversation:

«Process analytics is for everyone who believes that they don’t need it.»

There is definitely truth in this statement, and it certainly shows the abundance of application possibilities. At the same time, it should be considered that in the future, users of process analytical technology will not only invest in conventional measurement technologies (e.g., direct measurement, TDLAS, GC), but also increasingly in the determination of substance properties and material compositions.

Pollution (gases and aerosols) in ambient air are especially harmful to human health. These substances can continuously and reliably be monitored by process analyzers.

PAT serves to analyze, optimize, and ultimately control processes and their critical parameters. This control makes a major contribution to quality assurance and the overall process reliability at the manufacturer. Thinking back to some well-known chemical disasters (e.g. Minamata, Toulouse, or Tianjin) in which poisonous substances were released, causing immense damage to people and the environment, the importance regarding regular monitoring of critical parameters becomes abundantly clear. The list of analytes that can and must be monitored is long, ranging from contamination in wastewater due to municipal or industrial wastewater treatment plants, to pharmaceutical agents, to gases and aerosols in the ambient air.

From Lab to Process

Considering the history of manufacturing and other industrial processes, it is clear that the ultimate goal is to increase throughput in ever-shorter timeframes, with an eye on safety measures and minimization of costs where possible. Independence through automation and fast, reliable data transfer is a high priority.

In order to make the process economically viable along the entire value chain, the resulting products should be manufactured at the highest quality in a short time and with minimal raw material and energy usage. For 24/7 operations in particular, knowledge of the composition of the starting materials and intermediate products (or rather, any impurities) is essential for optimal process control and reliability.

How can reliable process monitoring be ensured around the clock? Very few companies have company laboratories with an actual 3-shift operation, and often send their samples to external laboratories. Additionally, the samples are sometimes taken with longer time intervals between them. This carries various risks.

On one hand, the time lost between the sampling event and receiving the results from the analysis is enormous. It is only possible to react to fluctuations and deviations from target concentrations or limit values ​​with a certain delay. On the other hand, working and environmental conditions are not comparable and can lead to changes in the sample. Oxidation, pressure or temperature changes, introduction of moisture, and many other factors can change a sample’s original properties during transport, waiting periods, and manual laboratory analysis.

Example trend graph comparing process deviations mitigated by manual control (grey) and fully automatic process control (orange) via PAT.

Process analyzers: automated operation around the clock

Analyses, which are usually carried out manually, are automated by using industrial process analyzers. The samples are automatically removed from critical points in the production process and processed further. The information obtained is used to control the process without any delay, as the data can be transferred immediately to a central computing system at the plant. Automated analysis right at the sample point allows for increased accuracy and reproducibility of the data.

In practice, this entails rerouting a partial stream from the process in question to be fed to the analyzer by means of valves, peristaltic pumps, or bypass lines. Each sample is therefore fresh and correlates to the current process conditions. Probes can also be integrated directly into the process for continuous inline measurement.

The analysis is performed using common titration, spectroscopy, ion chromatography, or electrochemical methods known from the laboratory, which are optimally integrated into the process analyzer for each individual application requirement. The methods can be used in combination, allowing several measuring points to be monitored in parallel with one system. Thanks to the process analyzers that are specifically configured and expandable for the application, the optimal conditions for stable process control are obtained.

Spectroscopic methods have become particularly well-established in recent years for process analysis and optimization purposes. In contrast to conventional analysis methods, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy shows a number of advantages, especially due to the analysis speed. Results can be acquired within a few seconds and transferred directly to the chemical control system so that production processes can be optimized quickly and reliably. Samples are analyzed in situ, completely without the use of chemicals, in a non-destructive manner, which means further added value for process safety.

The many advantages of PAT

Automation in the context of process analysis technology does not always have anything to do with futuristic robots. Instead, PAT offers companies a number of advantages:

 

  • Fully automatic, 24/7 monitoring of the process
  • Timely and automatic feedback of the analysis results to the system control for automatic process readjustment
  • Reduction in fluctuations of product quality
  • Increased process understanding to run production more efficiently
  • Independent of your own laboratory (or contract lab)
  • Complete digital traceability of analysis results
  • Total solution concepts including sample preconditioning, saving time and increasing safety

What’s next?

In our next post in this series, you will discover the role process analysis technology plays in digital transformation with regard to «Industry 4.0».

Want to learn more about the history of process analysis technology at Metrohm? Check out our previous blog post:

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Post written by Dr. Kerstin Dreblow, Product Manager Wet Chemical Process Analyzers, Deutsche Metrohm Prozessanalytik (Germany), with contributions from Dr. Alyson Lanciki, Scientific Editor at Metrohm International Headquarters (Switzerland).