Lager or ale? Pale ale or stout? Specialty beer, or basic draft? This week, to celebrate the International Beer Day on Friday, August 7th, I have chosen to write about a subject near and dear to me: how to make a better beer! Like many others, at the beginning of my adult life, I enjoyed the beverage without giving much thought to the vast array of styles and how they differed, beyond the obvious visual and gustatory senses. However, as a chemist with many chemist friends, I was introduced at several points to the world of homebrewing. Eventually, I succumbed.
Back in 2014, my husband and I bought all of the accessories to brew 25 liters (~6.5 gallons) of our own beer at a time. The entire process is controlled by us, from designing a recipe and milling the grains to sanitizing and bottling the finished product. We enjoy being able to develop the exact bitterness, sweetness, mouthfeel, and alcohol content for each batch we brew.
Over the years we have become more serious about this hobby by optimizing the procedure and making various improvements to the setup – including building our own temperature-controlled fermentation fridge managed by software. However, without an automated system, we occasionally run into issues with reproducibility between batches when using the same recipe. This is an issue that every brewer can relate to, no matter the size of their operation.
Working for Metrohm since 2013 has allowed me to have access to different analytical instrumentation in order to check certain quality attributes (e.g., strike water composition, mash pH, bitterness). However, Metrohm can provide much more to those working in the brewing industry. Keep reading to discover how we have improved analysis at the largest brewery in Switzerland.
Are you looking for applications in alcoholic beverages? Check out this selection of FREE Application Notes from Metrohm:
Lagers vs. Ales
There are two primary classes of beer: lagers and ales. The major contrast between the two is the type of yeast used for the fermentation process. Lagers must be fermented at colder temperatures, which lends crisp flavors and low ester formation. However, colder processes take longer, and so fermentation steps can last for some months. Ales have a much more sweet and fruity palate of flavors and are much easier to create than lagers, as the fermentation takes place at warmer temperatures and happens at a much faster rate.
Comparison between the fermentation of lagers and ales.
Diving a bit deeper, there are several styles of beer, from light pilsners and pale ales to porters and black imperial stouts. The variety of colors and flavors depend mostly on the grains used during the mash, which is the initial process of soaking the milled grains at a specific temperature (or range) to modify the starches and sugars for the yeast to be able to digest. The strain of yeast also contributes to the final flavor, whether it is dry, fruity, or even sour. Taking good care of the yeast is one of the most important parts of creating a great tasting beer.
- Malting: process of germinating and kilning barley to produce usable sugars in the grain
- Milling: act of grinding the grains to increase surface area and optimize extraction of sugars
- Mashing: releasing malt sugars by soaking the milled grains in (hot) water, providing wort
- Wort: the solution of extracted grain sugars
- Lautering: process of clarifying wort after mashing
- Sparging: rinsing the used grains to extract the last amount of malt sugars
- Boiling: clarified wort is boiled, accomplishing sterilization (hops are added in this step)
- Cooling: wort must be cooled well below body temperature (37 °C) as quickly as possible to avoid infection
- Pitching: prepared yeast (dry or slurry) is added to the cooled brewed wort, oxygen is introduced
- Fermenting: the process whereby yeast consumes simple sugars and excretes ethanol and CO2 as major products
Ingredients for a proper beer
These days, beer can contain several different ingredients and still adhere to a style. Barley, oats, wheat, rye, fruit, honey, spices, hops, yeast, water, and more are all components of our contemporary beer culture. However, in Bavaria during the 1500’s, the rules were much more strict. A purity law known as the Reinheitsgebot (1516) stated that beer must only be produced with water, barley, and hops. Any other adjuncts were not allowed, which meant that other grains such as rye and wheat were forbidden to be used in the brewing process. We all know how seriously the Germans take their beer – you only need to visit the Oktoberfest once to understand!
Determination of the bitterness compounds in hops, known as «alpha acids», can be easily determined with Metrohm instrumentation. Check out our brochure for more information:
You may have noticed that yeast was not one of the few ingredients mentioned in the purity law, however it was still essential for the brewing process. The yeast was just harvested at the end of each batch and added into the next, and its propagation from the fermentation process always ensured there was enough at the end each time. Ensuring the health of the yeast is integral to fermentation and the quality of the final product. With proper nutrients, oxygen levels, stable temperatures, and a supply of simple digestible sugars, alcohol contents up to 25% (and even beyond) can be achieved with some yeast strains without distillation (through heating or freezing, as for eisbocks).
Improved quality with analytical testing
Good beers do not make themselves. For larger brewing operations, which rely on consistency in quality and flavor between large batch volumes as well as across different countries, comprehensive analytical testing is the key to success.
Metrohm is well-equipped for this task, offering many solutions for breweries large and small.
Don’t take it from me – listen to one of our customers, Jules Wyss, manager of the Quality Assurance laboratory at Feldschlösschen brewery, the largest brewery in Switzerland.
«I have decided to go with Metrohm, because they are the only ones who are up to such a job at all. They share with us their huge know-how.
I can’t think of any other supplier who would have been able to help me in the same way.»
Previous solutions failed
For a long time, Jules determined the quality parameters in his beer samples using separate analysis systems: a titrator, HPLC system, alcohol measuring device, and a density meter. These separate measurements involved a huge amount of work: not only the analyses themselves, but also the documentation and archiving of the results all had to be handled separately. Furthermore, Jules often had to contend with unreliable results – depending on the measurement procedure, he had to analyze one sample up to three times in order to obtain an accurate result.
A tailor-made system for Feldschlösschen
Jules’ close collaboration with Metrohm has produced a system that takes care of the majority of the necessary measurements. According to Jules, the system can determine around 90% of the parameters he needs to measure. Jules’ new analysis system combines various analysis techniques: ion chromatography and titration from Metrohm as well as alcohol, density, and color measurement from another manufacturer. They are all controlled by the tiamo titration software. This means that bitterness, citric acid, pH value, alcohol content, density, and color can all be determined by executing a single method in tiamo.
Measurement of the overall water quality as well as downstream analysis of the sanitization process on the bottling line is also possible with Metrohm’s line of Process Analysis instrumentation.
Integrated analytical systems with automated capabilities allow for a «plug and play» determination of a variety of quality parameters for QA/QC analysts in the brewing industry. Sample analysis is streamlined and simplified, and throughput is increased via the automation of time-consuming preparative and data collection steps, which also reduces the chance of human error.
Something to celebrate: The Metrohm 6-pack (2018)
In 2018, Metrohm celebrated its 75 year Jubilee. At this time, I decided to combine my experience as a laboratory analyst as well as a marketing manager to brew a series of six different styles of beer for the company, as a giveaway for customers of our Metrohm Process Analytics brand, for whom I worked at the time. Each batch was brewed to contain precisely 7.5% ABV (alcohol by volume), to resonate with the 75 year anniversary. The array of ales was designed to appeal to a broad audience, featuring a stout, porter, brown ale, red ale, hefeweizen, and an India pale ale (IPA). Each style requires different actions especially during the mashing process, based on the type of grains used and the desired outcome (e.g., flavor balance, mouthfeel, alcohol content).
Bespoke bottle caps featuring the Metrohm logo.
The 6 styles of beers brewed as a special customer giveaway to celebrate the Metrohm 75 year Jubilee.
Using a Metrohm Ion Chromatograph, I analyzed my home tap water for concentrations of major cations and anions to ensure no extra salts were needed to adjust it prior to mashing. After some of the beers were prepared, I tested my colleagues at Metrohm International Headquarters in the IC department, to see if they could determine the difference between two bottles with different ingredients:
Overlaid chromatograms from IC organic acid analysis highlighting the differences between 2 styles of the Metrohm 75 year Jubilee beers.
The IC analysis of organic acids and anions showed a clear difference between the beers, allowing them to determine which sample corresponded to which style, since I did not label them prior to shipping the bottles for analysis. As the milk stout contained added lactose, this peak was very pronounced and a perfect indicator to use.
Metrohm ion chromatography, along with titration, NIRS, and other techniques, allows for reliable, comprehensive beer analysis for all.
In conclusion, I wish you a very happy International Beer Day this Friday. Hopefully this article has illuminated the various ways that beer and other alcoholic beverages can be analytically tested for quality control parameters and more – fast, easy, and reliably with Metrohm instrumentation.
For more information about the beer quality parameters measured at Feldschlösschen brewery, take a look at our article: «In the kingdom of beer – The largest brewery in Switzerland gets a made-to-measure system». Cheers!
Read the full article:
«In the kingdom of beer – The largest brewery in Switzerland gets a made-to-measure system»
Post written by Dr. Alyson Lanciki, Scientific Editor (and «chief brewing officer») at Metrohm International Headquarters, Herisau, Switzerland.